Patients suffering from multiple sclerosis experience various cognitive and affective impairments, resulting in a negative impact on social behavior and personal independence to differing degrees. According to these often clinically subtle but conflicting cognitive-affective impairments, recordings of these socially relevant issues are still of demand to stratifying clinical and social support in a sophisticated way. Therefore, we studied specific cognitive and affective capacities in eleven patients with a predominant relapsing-remitting type of multiple sclerosis by applying paradigms of event-related potentials and a well-selected neuropsychological test protocol. Thus far, distinct cognitive disturbances of executive and attentional domains and the Wechsler Memory Test’s four memory indices were found in multiple sclerosis patients. Concerning affective domains, patients showed discrete impairments of affect discrimination and affected naming as proved by specific testing (Tuebinger Affect Battery). Neurophysiologically, event-related potentials recordings in multiple sclerosis patients, were associated with decreased implicit emotion processing to cues of different emotion arousal at the early processing stage depending on attentional capacities and alterations of implicit emotion modulation at late processing stages. These clinical neurophysiological and neuropsychological data were correlated in part to quantitative magnetic resonance imaging brain lesions. Summarizing our data, our data indicate certain neurocognitive and neuroaffective dysfunctions in patients with multiple sclerosis, thus highlighting the validity of sensitive recording of less apparent neurologic disturbances in multiple sclerosis for optimizing the individual care management in patients.