IMR Press / RCM / Volume 25 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2504133
Open Access Review
Bioresorbable Scaffolds for Below-the-Knee Arterial Disease: A Literature Review of New Developments
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1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100053 Beijing, China
2 Department of Vascular Surgery, Luhe Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 101199 Beijing, China
*Correspondence:; (Ying-Feng Wu)
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2024, 25(4), 133;
Submitted: 9 August 2023 | Revised: 7 December 2023 | Accepted: 14 December 2023 | Published: 3 April 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

This review aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of bioabsorbable stents in the inferior genicular artery, from the emergence of absorbable bare metal stents to the latest technology in polymer and anti-proliferative eluting drugs mixed with coated bioresorbable vascular stents (BVSs). Currently, there are conflicting data regarding the safety and effectiveness of BVSs in infrapopliteal artery interventions, especially compared to the current generation of drug-eluting stents (DESs). This review will cover the existing data on BVSs in reconstructing the infrapopliteal arterial blood flow and active clinical trials for future iterations of BVSs. In terms of primary patency rate and target lesion revascularization rate, the available research on the effectiveness of BVSs in reconstructing the infrapopliteal arterial blood flow suggests that a BVS is compatible with current DESs within 3–12 months; long-term data have not yet been reported. The ABSORB BVS is the most studied BVS in cardiovascular disease (CAD). Initially, the ABSORB BVS showed promising results. Managing intricate regions in peripheral artery disorders, such as branching or lengthy lesions, continues to be a formidable undertaking. In contrast to the advanced narrowing of arteries seen in standard permanent stent procedures, bioabsorbable stents have the potential to promote the expansion and beneficial merging of blood channels in the latter stages. Furthermore, incorporating stents and re-establishing the endothelial function can diminish the probability of restenosis or thrombosis. Nevertheless, the extent to which bioabsorbable stents may simultaneously preserve arterial patency and guarantee their structural integrity remains uncertain. The powerful and intricate mechanical stresses exerted by the blood in the superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery can cause negative consequences on any implant inserted into the vessel, regardless of its composition, even metal. Furthermore, incorporating stents is advantageous for treating persistent occlusive lesions since it does not impact later treatments, including corrective bypass operations. Evidence is scarce about the use of bioabsorbable stents in treating infrapopliteal lesions. Utilizing bioabsorbable stents in minor infrapopliteal lesions can successfully maintain the patency of the blood vessel lumen, whereas balloon angioplasty cannot offer this benefit. The primary focus of testing these materials is determining whether bioabsorbable scaffolds can provide adequate radial force in highly calcified elongated lesions. Indeed, using “-limus” medication elution technology in conjunction with bioabsorbable stents has previously offered clinical benefits in treating the popliteal artery, as evidenced by limited trials.BVSs for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) show promise and have the potential to offer a less inflammatory and more vessel-friendly option compared to permanent metallic stents. However, current evidence does not yet allow for a universal recommendation for their use. Thus, ongoing, and future studies, such as those examining the newer generation of bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) with improved mechanical properties and resorption profiles, will be crucial in defining the role of BRSs in managing PAD.

bioresorbable scaffold (BRS)
below-the-knee (BTK) disease
chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI)
infrapopliteal artery
Fig. 1.
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