IMR Press / RCM / Volume 24 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2403090
Open Access Review
Latest from the WISE: Contributions to the Understanding of Ischemia and Heart Failure among Women with No Obstructive Coronary Arteries
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1 Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
2 Department of Kinesiology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
3 Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
4 Barbra Streisand Women’s Heart Center, Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
*Correspondence: (Janet Wei)
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2023, 24(3), 90;
Submitted: 16 April 2022 | Revised: 1 December 2022 | Accepted: 30 January 2023 | Published: 15 March 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Since 1996, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) has been investigating pathophysiological processes underlying ischemic heart disease in women and related outcomes. Recent findings have focused on women with signs and symptoms of ischemia and no obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA) and their elevated risk for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This review summarizes the latest WISE findings related to INOCA and pre-HFpEF characteristics, addressing our understanding of contributions from traditional vs nontraditional risk factors in women.

coronary microvascular dysfunction
ischemic heart disease
heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
cardiac magnetic resonance
N01-HV-68161/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes
N01-HV-68162/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes
N01-HV-68163/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes
N01-HV-68164/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institutes
U0164829/National Institute on Aging
U01 HL649141/National Institute on Aging
U01 HL649241/National Institute on Aging
K23HL105787/National Institute on Aging
K23HL12594/National Institute on Aging
T32HL69751/National Institute on Aging
R01HL090957/National Institute on Aging
R01HL146158/National Institute on Aging
R01HL124649/National Institute on Aging
R01HL153500/National Institute on Aging
U54AG065141/National Institute on Aging
1R03AG032631/National Institute on Aging
MO1-RR00425/National Center for Research Resources
UL1TR000124/ational Center for Advancing Translational Sciences
Fig. 1.
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