IMR Press / RCM / Volume 24 / Issue 11 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2411314
Open Access Original Research
Clinical and Prognostic Value of Non-Fasting Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins in Chinese Patients with Coronary Heart Disease
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1 Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200011 Shanghai, China
*Correspondence: (Changqian Wang); (Huili Zhang)
These authors contributed equally.
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2023, 24(11), 314;
Submitted: 26 February 2023 | Revised: 10 May 2023 | Accepted: 17 May 2023 | Published: 9 November 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Lipid profiles differ naturally between individuals and between populations. So far, the data relating to non-fasting lipid profiles has been derived predominantly from studies on Western population. The characteristics and clinical significance of non-fasting lipids in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in response to traditional Chinese diets remain poorly understood. Methods: A total of 1022 Chinese CHD patients with coronary artery luminal stenosis >40% as diagnosed by coronary artery angiography were enrolled in the study. All patients received standard treatment for CHD, including statins. They were divided into an intermediate stenosis group (luminal stenosis 40–70%, n = 486) or a severe stenosis group (luminal stenosis >70%, n = 536). Their blood lipid profiles were measured in the fasting state, and 4 hours after normal breakfast. All participants were followed up for five years. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unscheduled coronary revascularization and stroke were recorded. Results: After normal breakfast intake, patients with intermediate or severe stenosis showed an apparent increase in the levels of triglyceride (TG), remnant cholesterol (RC) and Apo (apolipoprotein) A1 compared to the fasting state, but a significant reduction in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), Apo B and Apo E. In addition to the traditional risk factors (older age, male, diabetes and smoking) and coronary artery stenosis, the fasting levels of LDL-C and Apo B, as well as non-fasting levels of HDL-C and Apo A1, were identified as independent predictors of 5-year MACE occurrence by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Patients in the 1st tertile of the non-fasting HDL-C group (<0.86 mmol/L) showed a significantly higher risk of MACE than 3rd tertile (>1.07 mmol/L) (1st tertile: 2.786, 95% CI (confidence intervals) [1.808, 4.293], p < 0.001). Conclusions: This prospective observational study found that lipid profiles in either the fasting or non-fasting states were associated with the long-term risk of MACE in Chinese CHD patients. In addition to the fasting LDL-C level, a low non-fasting HDL-C level may also be an independent risk factors for cardiovascular events. Measurement of lipid profiles during the non-fasting state may be feasible for the management of CHD patients in routine clinical practice in China.

non-fasting state
coronary heart disease
major adverse cardiovascular events
coronary artery stenosis
21ZR1438000/Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai
JYLJ202014/Clinical Research Program of 9th People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Fig. 1.
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