IMR Press / JIN / Volume 23 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2303048
Open Access Review
The Neural Mechanism Underlying Differentiated In-Group Versus Out-Group Face Recognition and Memory, Identification, Empathy and Pro-social Behavior: Evidence from fMRI and ERP Studies
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1 School of Basic Medicine, Kunming Medical University, 650500 Kunming, Yunnan, China
2 School of Government, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming, Yunnan, China
*Correspondence: (Lili Tan); (Xiaomin Zhang)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2024, 23(3), 48;
Submitted: 14 June 2023 | Revised: 27 July 2023 | Accepted: 31 July 2023 | Published: 1 March 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

In the context of perceiving individuals within and outside of social groups, there are distinct cognitive processes and mechanisms in the brain. Extensive research in recent years has delved into the neural mechanisms that underlie differences in how we perceive individuals from different social groups. To gain a deeper understanding of these neural mechanisms, we present a comprehensive review from the perspectives of facial recognition and memory, intergroup identification, empathy, and pro-social behavior. Specifically, we focus on studies that utilize functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) techniques to explore the relationship between brain regions and behavior. Findings from fMRI studies reveal that the brain regions associated with intergroup differentiation in perception and behavior do not operate independently but instead exhibit dynamic interactions. Similarly, ERP studies indicate that the amplitude of neural responses shows various combinations in relation to perception and behavior.

facial recognition and memory
intergroup identification
pro-social behavior
neural mechanisms
31960168/National Natural Science Foundation of China
31460258/National Natural Science Foundation of China
71563062/National Natural Science Foundation of China
71963033/National Natural Science Foundation of China
Fig. 1.
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