IMR Press / JIN / Volume 21 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.jin2101042
Open Access Original Research
Citrus limon L. (lemon) seed extract shows neuro-modulatory activity in an in vivo thiopental-sodium sleep model by reducing the sleep onset and enhancing the sleep duration
Show Less
1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Daffodil International University, 1207 Dhaka, Bangladesh
2 Pre-Clinical Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4 Prince Fahd Research Chair, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Tabuk, 47311 Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
*Correspondence: (Muniruddin Ahmed); (Mohammad Fahad Ullah)
J. Integr. Neurosci. 2022, 21(1), 42;
Submitted: 24 May 2021 | Revised: 28 July 2021 | Accepted: 14 September 2021 | Published: 28 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural products for neurological disorders)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Citrus limon L. is an ingenious alternative medication and has a broad scope in managing several health conditions as part of natural remedies. Recently, medicinal plants have witnessed incredible consideration worldwide in the field of neuroscience for remedial intervention. The present work has investigated the phytochemical compounds and neuropharmacological potential of the seed extract of Citrus limon as a step to partially validate its formulations as nutraceuticals using an in vivo model. Diverse phytochemical groups such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, gums, saponins, steroids were qualitatively identified through colorimetric methods utilizing standard compounds. The neuropharmacological properties were studied in Swiss albino mice with the sleep time induced by thiopental sodium taken as an end-point, in standard hole cross, hole board, and open-field experiments at varying doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, and glycosides are present in the aqueous extract of the seed. The extracts demonstrated a significant reduction in sleep onset and enhanced the sleep duration in a dose-dependent manner in thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time, along with a marked decrease in unconstrained locomotors and explorative properties in both hole cross and open field tests. Moreover, in the hole board study, the extracts minimized the count of head dips observed in the treated mice. The results shown in this study demonstrate that Citrus limon extracts have neuropharmacological properties that can be further examined for their potential role as an adjuvant with conventional medications or nutraceuticals.

Neurological disorders
Phytochemical compounds
Latent period
Neuropharmacological potential
Fig. 1.
Back to top