IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2021.02.2275
Open Access Original Research
Paternal age predicts live birth in women above 40 years of age undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF)
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, McGill University, 845 Rue Sherbrooke O, Montréal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
2 MUHC Reproductive Center, McGill University, 888 Boul de Maisonneuve E #200, Montréal, QC H2L 4S8, Canada
*Correspondence: (Michael H. Dahan)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(2), 299–306;
Submitted: 28 August 2020 | Revised: 21 October 2020 | Accepted: 20 November 2020 | Published: 15 April 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Authors. Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (

Purpose: To determine which factors predict pregnancy outcome in women aged 40 years and above who underwent in-vitro fertilization. Method: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 631 women aged 40–46 years, who underwent a total of 904 IVF cycles with autologous gametes. We used stepwise logistic regression analysis to develop predictors of pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and live birth outcomes. Data are presented as mean ± SD, percentage and confidence intervals. Results: Predictors of live birth included maternal (95% CI: 0.36–0.78) and paternal (95% CI: 0.62–0.94) age, the number of follicels > 14 mm (95% CI: 1.2–3.2), the number of oocytes collected (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) the number of metaphase II oocytes (95% CI: 1.3–2.4) and the number of cleavage stage embryos (95% CI: 1.8–2.6). The predictors of pregnancy and clinical pregnancy were similar but did not include male age (P > 0.05). To further determine the role of male age in live birth a control group of women younger than 40 years was collected. Male age was not a significant predictor of live birth among younger women (P = 0.42). Conclusions: Female age and better ovarian stimulation were confirmed as predictors of outcomes in older women doing IVF. However, male age was also noted to be a significant individual predictor of live birth in women over 40 years of age, but not in younger women doing IVF.

Advanced maternal age
Advanced paternal age
Biologic clock
In-vitro fertilization
Fig. 1.
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