IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog.2021.01.5488
Open Access Original Research
Protective effects of apocynin and melatonin on ovarian ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
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1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Istanbul, Istanbul University, 34452 Istanbul, Turkey
2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat, Turkey
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, 20160 Denizli, Turkey
4 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Afyonkarahisar University of Health Sciences, 03200 Afyonkarahisar, Turkey
5 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat, Turkey
6 Faculty of Health Sciences and Central Research Laboratory, Mardin Artuklu University, 47200 Mardin, Turkey
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(1), 98–104; https://doi.org/10.31083/j.ceog.2021.01.5488
Submitted: 13 January 2020 | Revised: 25 July 2020 | Accepted: 31 July 2020 | Published: 15 February 2021
Abstract

Objective: This study aims to determine the protective effects of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, and melatonin, an endogenous anti-oxidant, in an animal model of ovarian ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Materials/Methods: Thirty-five female rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely group I (sham), group II (I/R), group III (I/R + 10 mg/kg apocynin), group IV (I/R + 20 mg/kg apocynin), and group V (I/R + 10 mg/kg melatonin). Ovarian tissue and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were measured. Ovarian histopathology was examined and Bax, caspase 3, and iNOS immunoreactivities were evaluated. Results: Preoperative apocynin and melatonin significantly increased SOD and CAT activities (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively, for both apocynin and melatonin). In addition, preoperative apocynin and melatonin significantly decreased the ovarian I/R injury score (P < 0.01 for both). Bax, caspase 3, and iNOS immunoreactivities were significantly lower in the I/R + 10 mg/kg apocynin and I/R + 10 mg/kg melatonin groups than in the I/R group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Apocynin and melatonin are powerful anti-oxidant agents with considerable bioavailability and safety. Preoperative apocynin and melatonin administration might protect ovarian tissue from I/R injury after surgical adnexal detorsion.

Keywords
Apocynin
Ischemia
Melatonin
Ovary
Reperfusion injury
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