IMR Press / RCM / Volume 25 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2504129
Open Access Review
Disparities in Mitral Valve Disease Associated with Heart Failure
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1 Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68178, USA
2 Creighton University School of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ 85012, USA
3 Internal Medicine, Creighton University Medical Center – Bergan Mercy, Omaha, NE 68124, USA
*Correspondence: (Olivia Foley)
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2024, 25(4), 129;
Submitted: 27 October 2023 | Revised: 24 January 2024 | Accepted: 29 January 2024 | Published: 1 April 2024
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Heart failure (HF) affects millions of people around the world and is a prevalent health issue in the United States. In many cases, HF has an intricate connection with mitral valvular disease (MVD), which can alter a patient’s disease course. Factors such as gender, race, ethnicity, and social determinants of health impact the prevalence, etiology, and treatment of MVD associated with HF. This literature review examines the connection between MVD and HF among adult patients, considering MVD as both a cause and an outcome of HF. This article also identifies the differences in epidemiology and treatment of MVD associated with HF across different gender, ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic groups. This is in an effort to not only identify currently overlooked disparities but to highlight potential ways to improve them. MVD was analyzed based on its hemodynamic subtypes, mitral regurgitation (MR) and mitral stenosis (MS), as these subtypes encompass different etiologies of MVD. The purpose of this article was to identify broad disparities in MVD in association with HF in the adult population. The results of this study found stark differences between prevalence, treatment, and disease outcomes across groups. Women and Black patients were identified as high-risk for under-utilization and prescription delay of treatment options. Women were often treated at more advanced stages of MVD, while treatment was often delayed in Black patient populations. Factors such as these impact treatment outcomes. Conversely, men and White patients were identified as lower-risk groups for treatment inadequacies and poor HF and MVD related outcomes. Socioeconomic status (SES) was also found to play a role, with low SES being a risk factor for developing rheumatic heart disease. Low SES groups are also more likely to develop HF, which predisposes to secondary MR. Despite general knowledge of these disparities, few studies analyze HF and MVD for specific groups. This literature review is thus necessary to identify current inequities in care and underscore potential solutions to raise awareness for further research efforts and funding. This analysis identifies MVD treatment guidelines and contributing social determinants of health as areas that must be addressed to minimize HF and MVD disparities.

Fig. 1.
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