IMR Press / RCM / Volume 25 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2502056
Open Access Review
Circulating Myokines as Novel Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Diseases
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1 Department of Pharmacy, Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, 225001 Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
2 Medical College, Yangzhou University, 225009 Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
3 College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 116044 Dalian, Liaoning, China
*Correspondence: (Hua Zhu); (Peng-zhou Hang)
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2024, 25(2), 56;
Submitted: 6 July 2023 | Revised: 25 September 2023 | Accepted: 11 October 2023 | Published: 5 February 2024
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics)
Copyright: © 2024 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Myokines are a group of cytokines or polypeptides released from skeletal muscle during exercise. Growing evidence suggests that myokines are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, several myokines in peripheral blood exhibit dynamic changes in different CVD stages. This review summarizes the potential roles of myokines such as myostatin, irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, mitsugumin 53, meteorin-like, and apelin in various CVD, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. The association of these myokines with biomarkers currently being used in clinical practice is also discussed. Furthermore, the review considers the emerging role of myokines in CVD and addresses the challenges remaining in translating these discoveries into novel clinical biomarkers for CVD.

cardiovascular diseases
82370384/National Natural Science Foundation of China
82070309/National Natural Science Foundation of China
81870191/National Natural Science Foundation of China
FCJS202313/Support Technology Project of Northern Jiangsu People’s Hospital
Lvyangjinfeng Talent Program of Yangzhou and the “333” Project of Jiangsu Province
Fig. 1.
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