Myokines are a group of cytokines or polypeptides released from skeletal muscle during exercise. Growing evidence suggests that myokines are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, several myokines in peripheral blood exhibit dynamic changes in different CVD stages. This review summarizes the potential roles of myokines such as myostatin, irisin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, mitsugumin 53, meteorin-like, and apelin in various CVD, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. The association of these myokines with biomarkers currently being used in clinical practice is also discussed. Furthermore, the review considers the emerging role of myokines in CVD and addresses the challenges remaining in translating these discoveries into novel clinical biomarkers for CVD.