IMR Press / RCM / Volume 24 / Issue 5 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2405152
Open Access Review
The Prognostic Role of Programmed Ventricular Stimulation in the Risk Stratification of Sudden Cardiac Death
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1 Cardiology Unit, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli'', AORN Ospedali dei Colli Monaldi Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
2 Unit of Cardiology and Intensive Coronary Care, Umberto I Hospital, 84014 Nocera Inferiore, Italy
3 Cardiology Unit, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, 56124 Pisa, Italy
4 Division of Cardiology, Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
5 Cardiovascular Disease Unit, Department of Cardiology, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy
*Correspondence: (Vincenzo Russo)
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2023, 24(5), 152;
Submitted: 28 February 2023 | Revised: 24 March 2023 | Accepted: 7 April 2023 | Published: 19 May 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sudden Cardiac Death in Special Population—Volume 2)
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular death in general population. SCD primary prevention requires the correct selection of patients at increased risk who may benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Despite several non-invasive arrhythmic risk indexes are available, their ability to stratify the SCD risk among asymptomatic patients with cardiac disease at increased arrhythmic risk is debated. The programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS) is an invasive approach historically used for SCD risk stratification in patients with acquired or inherited cardiac disease and is currently included in international guidelines. Aim of this review is to summarize all available data about the role of PVS for the SCD risk stratification in different clinical settings.

programmed ventricular stimulation
sudden cardiac death
risk stratification
Fig. 1.
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