Academic Editors: Francesco Onorati and Antonio Mangieri
Until recently, conventional mitral valve surgery has been the treatment of choice even in secondary mitral regurgitation. Recent evidence, however, advocates the use of transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TEER) of the mitral valve. This has been reflected by the change in guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. We reviewed the literature to shed light on the risks and benefits of all interventions, surgical, transcatheter and guideline-directed medical therapy. Secondary mitral regurgitation occurs due to an imbalance between closing forces and tethering forces. Given the pathology extends beyond the valve alone, treatment should be directed at restoring the geometrical shape of the left ventricle alongside the valve. Myocardial revascularization plays a pivotal role in preventing recurrence. The role of papillary muscle approximation in addition to restrictive mitral annuloplasty should be considered in a select group of patients. We also reviewed the current literature on TEERs from the COAPT and Mitra-FR trials while highlighting the concept of proportionate/disproportionate MR which may help identify which patients benefit from mitral valve restoration. Treatment of this condition will require robust randomized trials alongside the use of state-of-the-art imaging technologies available with the full complement of the multidisciplinary team to ensure the best outcomes for each patient.