IMR Press / RCM / Volume 22 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2202043
Open Access Review
Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19
Show Less
1 Department of Preventive Cardiology and Lipidology, Chair of Nephrology and Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
2 Department of Cardiology and Congenital Diseases of Adults, Heart Failure Unit, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute (PMMHRI), Rzgowska 281/289, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2021, 22(2), 365–371;
Submitted: 14 March 2021 | Revised: 19 May 2021 | Accepted: 20 May 2021 | Published: 30 June 2021

COVID-19 is a novel viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) beta-coronavirus. Epidemiological status changes dynamically as the pandemy is far from ending. Several complications of presented virus may be similar to those observed in other viral infections. Despite lacking data, the heart involvement may be comparable to cardiac complications observed previously in those with SARS as well as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). In COVID-19 we observe elevated levels of cardiac biomarkers, such as natriuretic peptides, troponins, myoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ferritin, which is likely the result of myocardial injury. The possible mechanisms of cardiovascular injury include direct toxicity through the viral invasion of cardiac myocytes, ACE-2 receptor-mediated CV (cardiac and endothelial) injury, microvascular dysfunction and thrombosis and cytokine release syndrome (mainly IL-6 mediated). Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 are focal or global myocardial inflammation, necrosis, ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and arrhythmia.

Heart failure
Cardiac manifestations
Fig. 1.
Back to top