IMR Press / CEOG / Volume 48 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.31083/j.ceog4806205
Open Access Systematic Review
Effects of violence against women on health during menopause: a systematic review and metanalysis
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1 Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología de la Universidad de Granada, 18004 Granada, Spain
2 Preventive Medicine and Public Hospital General Universitario Ciudad Real, 13001 Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
*Correspondence: (Nicolas Mendoza)
Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 2021, 48(6), 1292–1299;
Submitted: 6 April 2021 | Revised: 14 May 2021 | Accepted: 26 May 2021 | Published: 15 December 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

Objective(s): This review aimed to respond to the question of how a history of violence against women (VAW) influences their health during menopause. Mechanism: We searched all articles (published in peer-reviewed journals up to March 2021) related to menopausal symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and chronic complications in postmenopausal women affected by VAW. Findings in brief: The literature search strategy identified 194 articles, of which 19 were selected for analysis. All articles described cross-sectional or cohort studies concerning menopausal or genitourinary symptoms, psychological health, physical conditions, sexual health, and cardiovascular or metabolic problems. The analyzed data set included 16436 women who reported experiencing violence in the USA, Brazil, and Australia. The combined data on the effect of VAW on menopausal symptoms suggest that the risk of suffering from such effects is 1.51 (95% CI: 1.23–1.86), while for sexual health, the risk was 1.4875 (95% CI: 1.2060–1.8346). Conclusions: A history of VAW increases the symptoms of menopause and worsens the physical conditions and sexual and psychological health after the age of 40. Thus, it is essential to investigate these antecedents in routine clinical practice when treating menopausal women with additional symptoms and to warn of the long-term general health risks for any woman who has experienced an episode of violence.

Violence against women
Sexual violence
Intimate partner violence
Gender-based violence
Sexual violence
Fig. 1.
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