IMR Press / FBE / Volume 8 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/757

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Functional amino acids in fish health and welfare

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1 National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), PO BOX 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
2 Current address: EWOS AS, Tollbodalmenningen 1B, 5803 Bergen, Norway

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Guoyao Wu

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2016, 8(1), 143–169; https://doi.org/10.2741/757
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino acids in nutrition, health, and disease)
Abstract

Protein is the most expensive part of fish diets and supplies amino acids (AA) for energy, growth, protein synthesis and as substrates for key metabolic pathways. Functional AA is a term used to describe AA that are involved in cellular processes apart from protein synthesis. A deficiency, or imbalance, in functional AA may impair body metabolism and homeostasis. Recent years have seen an increased interest in AA to increase disease resistance, immune response, reproduction, behavior and more. This has led to a boost of commercially available functional fish feeds that aim to optimize fish performance and quality of the product. This review aim to collect recent findings of functional AA and of how they may improve fish health and welfare. It will focus on functional properties of some of the most studied AA, namely arginine, glutamine, glutamate, tryptophan, sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine and taurine), histidine and branched chain amino acids. Where information is not available in fish, we will point towards functions known in animals and humans, with possible translational functions to fish.

Keywords
Amino acids
Nutrition
Functional amino acids
Fish
Atlantic salmon
Protein
Review
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