IMR Press / FBS / Volume 2 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S69

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Bioclinical markers in breast cancer: updates and perspectives
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1 Department of Surgery, General Surgery and Breast Unit, University of Catania, University Hospital - Catania, Catania, Italy
2 Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, I.R.C.C.S. Aviano (PN)
3 Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Catania, Italy
4 Department of Surgery, University of Catania, Italy
5 Breast Unit, National Cancer Institute,I.R.C.C.S. Aviano (PN)
6 Division of Laparoscopic and Bariatric Surgery, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Giovanni Li Volti

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2010, 2(1), 343–358;
Published: 1 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemical markers in biological fluids)

Molecular studies have definitely changed our knowledge of the biology of cancers, and breast cancer's tremendous social impact has stimulated a large mass of research. Classic markers have opened a road, but their usefulness appears limited to prognosis or follow up, while several new markers, both genetic and molecular, are assuming different, yet still controversial, importance: they may play a major role in the surveillance of subjects at risk, in detecting primary or recurrent cancers, and in predicting the need of adjuvant therapy, or the response to therapy. 

Nevertheless, the mandatory routine markers out of trials are not really modified when compared to the 2007 guidelines, essentially due to a lack of  appropriate levels of evidence. For this reason we can only recommend to include as many women as possible in specific trials, in order to reach the evidence level that we need to substantially improve our understanding of cancer and eventually the outcome for women with breast cancer. 

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