IMR Press / FBL / Volume 24 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/4720

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Antioxidant therapies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
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1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Ageing and Dementia Research Group, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
3 Research and Policy Department, World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar
4 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
5 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, India
6 Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
7 Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
*Correspondence: (Musthafa Mohamed Essa)
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2019, 24(2), 313–333;
Published: 1 January 2019

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder among children and adults. Impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity are hallmark of ADHD. While ADHD is not on the autism spectrum, they are related in several ways as they have some overlapping symptoms. The pathogenesis of ADHD has so far remained enigmatic, however, there is some evidence suggesting critical association among ADHD and the level of oxidative stress which trigger cell membrane damage, changes in inner structure and function of proteins, as well as structural damage to DNA which eventually culminate into development of ADHD. Although stimulants as well as some classes of non-stimulants are used to ameliorate symptom of ADHD, various adverse effects have been associated with such compounds. To date, treatment of ADHD is done with a combination of medications, behavior modifications, psycho-education, family therapy and life-style changes. The American Academy of Pediatrics officially promote stimulant medications and/or behavior therapy as ‘first line of therapy’. In addition to the presently therapeutic armamentarium, evidences are emerging on relevancy of natural products. There has been an interest on the therapeutic role of antioxidants in the treatment of ADHD. The present review aims to highlight the beneficiary role played by different antioxidants in mitigating the symptoms of ADHD.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Oxidative stress
Antioxidant therapy
Figure 1
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