IMR Press / FBE / Volume 5 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E610

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Semen hyperviscosity: causes, consequences, and cures

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1 Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, P.O. Box 19063, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
2 Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Prasad Ashok Wadegaonkar

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2013, 5(1), 224–231; https://doi.org/10.2741/E610
Published: 1 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinformatics and cancer)
Abstract

The prevalence of semen hyperviscosity (SHV) is estimated to be between 12-29% and can lead to male factor infertility both in vivo and in vitro. Semen is composed of fluids secreted by the male accessory glands, which contain proteins essential to the coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Hypofunction of the prostate or seminal vesicles causes abnormal viscosity of seminal fluid. Infection and high levels of seminal leukocytes may also result in the development of SHV. Oxidative stress and biochemical and genetic factors can furthermore contribute to this condition. Hyperviscosity can impair normal sperm movement in the female reproductive tract, and can lead to decreased sperm count. SHV is treated with a hypodermic needle, mucolytic enzymes, antibiotics and antiinflammatory agents in certain cases. Further research is needed to better understand the contributors to SHV and the treatments that can be used for infertile males with hyperviscous semen.

Keywords
Semen Hyperviscosity
Male Infertility
Sperm Motility
Seminal Fluid
Review
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