IMR Press / FBE / Volume 12 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E866

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Effects of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on gastrointestinal health
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1 University Guglielmo Marconi, University of Salerno, Italy
Send correspondence to: Veronica Di Nardo, Biologist Nutritionist, University of G.Marconi Roma Italy. Tel. 3497377250. E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2020, 12(1), 183–198;
Published: 1 March 2020

Gastrointestinal (GI) health of newborns is maintained by the gastrointestinal microbiome, and the PNEI (psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology) system and can be altered by the delivery mode of the milk to the newborn such as breast versus bottle feeding, exposure to antibiotics in the milk, or exposure to environmental pollutants. The health of GI tract is particularly is maintained by breast feeding since the maternal milk provides micro- and macronutrients essential to growth, as well as multifunctional small oligosaccharides, particularly, 2’-fucosyllactose which maintain the GI health.

Human Milk Oligosaccharides
Breast Feeding
Figure 1
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