IMR Press / FBE / Volume 10 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/E816

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Genetic addiction risk score (GARS)™, a predictor of vulnerability to opioid dependence

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1 Department of Psychiatry and McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.,USA
2 Division of Addiction Services, Dominion Diagnostics, LLC., North Kingstown, RI., USA
3 Division of Neuroscience-Based Therapy, Summit Estate Recovery Center, Los Gatos, CA, USA
4 Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA
5 Division of Neuroscience Research and Addiction Therapy, Shores Treatment and Recovery Center, Port Saint Lucie, Florida, USA
6 Human Integrated Services Unit, University of Vermont Centre for Clinical and Translational Science, College of Medicine, Burlington, VT
7 Eotovs Lorarnd University, Institute of Psychology, Budapest, Hungary
8 Division of Nutrigenomics, Sanus Biotech, Austin, TX, USA
9 Department of Psychology, Curry College, Milton, MA, USA
10 Igene LLC, Austin,Texas, USA
11 Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
12 Research Institute of Addictions, University of Buffalo, New York, USA
13 Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA
14 Institute of Health and Aging, University of California at San Francisco, CA, USA
15 Bio-behavioral Medical Corporation, Metairie, LA, USA
16 Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
17 Human Genome Center, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA
18 Department of Psychiatry, Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine and Dayton VA Medical Center, Dayton, OH (IE), USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2018, 10(1), 175–196;
Published: 1 January 2018

The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). Innovative strategies to combat epidemic opioid, iatrogenic prescription drug abuse and death, based on the role of dopaminergic tone in pain pathways, are proposed. Sensitivity to pain may reside in the mesolimbic projection system, where genetic polymorphisms associate with a predisposition to pain vulnerability or tolerance. They provide unique therapeutic targets that could assist in the treatment of pain, and identify risk for subsequent addiction. Pharmacogenomic testing of candidate genes like CB1, mu receptors, and PENK might result in pharmacogenomic, personalized solutions, and improved clinical outcomes. Genetically identifying risk for all RDS behaviors, especially in compromised populations, may be a frontline tool to assist municipalities to provide better resource allocation.

Acute Pain
Glutaminergic And Dopaminergic Pathways
Functional Connectivity
Genetic Addiction Risk Score
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