IMR Press / FBE / Volume 1 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/E46

Frontiers in Bioscience-Elite (FBE) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 2 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article

The mosaic of autoimmunity: the role of environmental factors

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1 Rheumatology Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo e Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
2 Center for Autoimmune Diseases and Department of Medicine B, Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel- Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel
3 Incumbent of the Laura Schwartz-Kipp Chair for Autoimmunity, Tel Aviv University
Academic Editor:Arpad Barabas
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2009, 1(2), 501–509; https://doi.org/10.2741/E46
Published: 1 June 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autoimmune diseases: their etiology, pathogenesis and treatment)
Abstract

The "mosaic of autoimmunity" describes the multifactorial origin and diversity of expression of autoimmune diseases in humans. The term implies that different combinations of the many factors that are involved in auto-immunity produce varying and unique clinical pictures in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Most of the factors involved in autoimmunity can be categorized into four groups: genetic, immune defects, hormonal and environmental factors. In this communication, only the environmental factors are reviewed such as: infectious agents (represented by Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus), vaccines as triggers of autoimmunity, smoking and its relationship with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Some aspects of stress as implicated in causing autoimmunity and the processes leading to autoimmunity are reviewed as well.

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