IMR Press / RCM / Volume 24 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2401028
Open Access Review
Cardiovascular Disease in Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of Pathophysiology and Diagnosis Approach
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1 Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Padjadjaran, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia
3 Emergency Department, R. Syamsudin SH Regional Public Hospital, Sukabumi, 43341 West Java, Indonesia
*Correspondence: (Nuraini Yasmin Kusumawardhani)
Academic Editor: Stefano De Servi
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2023, 24(1), 28;
Submitted: 21 October 2022 | Revised: 9 December 2022 | Accepted: 23 December 2022 | Published: 13 January 2023
Copyright: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Long COVID or post-acute Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a malady defined by the persistence of COVID-19 symptoms for weeks or even months, is expected to affect the lives of millions of individuals worldwide significantly. Cardiopulmonary symptoms such as chest discomfort, shortness of breath, fatigue, and autonomic manifestations such as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and arrhythmias are prevalent and widely recognized. A variety of cardiovascular problems, including myocardial inflammation, myocardial infarction, ventricular dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction, have been described in individuals following the initial acute phase. With over 10,000 published publications on COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system, presenting an unbiased thorough analysis of how SARS-CoV-2 affects the system is essentially challenging. This review will provide an overview of frequent cardiovascular manifestations, emphasizing consequences, proposed pathophysiology, and clinical diagnostic manifestation strategy.

long COVID-19
cardiovascular system
post-acute COVID-19
Fig. 1.
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