IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2302056
Open Access Review
Evidence-based treatment of atrial fibrillation around the globe: comparison of the latest ESC, AHA/ACC/HRS, and CCS guidelines on the management of atrial fibrillation
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1 Clinic of Cardiology II (Electrophysiology), University Hospital Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*Correspondence: (Julian Wolfes)
Academic Editors: Yoshiaki Kaneko and Konstantinos P. Letsas
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(2), 56;
Submitted: 7 September 2021 | Revised: 7 October 2021 | Accepted: 20 October 2021 | Published: 11 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Electrophysiology: Diagnosis and Treatment)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Recent versions of evidence-based guidelines on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and the Heart Rhythm Society (AHA/ACC/HRS), and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society (CCS). As all societies refer to the same multicentric and usually multinational studies, the similarities undoubtedly outweigh the differences. Nonetheless, interesting differences can often be found in details, which are usually based on a different assessment of the same study, the availability of data in relation to the publication date and local preferences and availabilities of certain cardiovascular drugs. The following article aims at lining out these similarities and differences.

Atrial fibrillation
Fig. 1.
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