IMR Press / FBS / Volume 8 / Issue 2 / DOI: 10.2741/S464

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.


Exosomes isolation protocols: facts and artifacts for cardiac regeneration

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1 Pasteur Institute - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2 Department of Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3 Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Biotechnology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy
4 Department of Pediatric Cardiology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Elena De Falco

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2016, 8(2), 303–311;
Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem cells: in health and diseases)

In recent years, exosomes have attracted increasing scientific interest and are no longer considered just as containers for cell waste, but as important mediators of intercellular communication. Among many biomedical research topics, a possible direct role of exosomes in the regenerative medicine field has been underlined in recent studies, including those regarding the so called “paracrine hypothesis”. In this perspective, a therapeutic role and/or use of exosomes for tissue regeneration seems to be plausible. However, the majority of the cells isolated and cultured in vitro are exposed to an exogenous exosomes source because of the wide use of foetal bovine serum as cell culture supplement. Bovine serum has been gradually considered as a major biological stimulus, but with still unknown outcome. In this review, we present the state of the art about the role of exosomes in regenerative medicine, particularly for the cardiovascular system. We also analyse the most commonly used exosome isolation techniques that, since their discovery, have undergone continuous development to reach the highest degree of scalability for future clinical translation.

Stem Cells
Cardiac Regeneration
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