IMR Press / FBS / Volume 8 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S457

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Non-coding RNAs in cancer brain metastasis

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1 Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
2 Department of Radiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Academic Editor: Kounosuke Watabe

Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2016, 8(1), 187–202; https://doi.org/10.2741/S457
Published: 1 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of tumor progression in breast and prostate cancer)
Abstract

More than 90% of cancer death is attributed to metastatic disease, and the brain is one of the major metastatic sites of melanoma, colon, renal, lung and breast cancers. Despite the recent advancement of targeted therapy for cancer, the incidence of brain metastasis is increasing. One reason is that most therapeutic drugs can’t penetrate blood-brain-barrier and tumor cells find the brain as sanctuary site. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology of brain metastases to introduce the latest understandings of metastatic brain malignancies. This review also particularly focuses on non-coding RNAs and their roles in cancer brain metastasis. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of the extracellular vesicles as they are known to transport information between cells to initiate cancer cell-microenvironment communication. The potential clinical translation of non-coding RNAs as a tool for diagnosis and for treatment is also discussed in this review. At the end, the computational aspects of non-coding RNA detection, the sequence and structure calculation and epigenetic regulation of non-coding RNA in brain metastasis are discussed.

Keywords
non-coding RNA
Brain Metastasis
Microenvironment
Extracellular Vesicle
Clinical Translation
Bioinformatics
Review
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