IMR Press / FBS / Volume 6 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S419

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Circadian abnormalities as markers of susceptibility in bipolar disorders
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1 AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Pole de Psychiatrie, Creteil, 94000, France
2 AP-HP, Groupe Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service de Physiologie, Creteil, 94000, France
3 AP-HP, Groupe Saint-Louis -Lariboisiere -Fernand Widal, Pole Neurosciences, Paris, France
4 Universite Paris Est UPEC, UFR de Medecine, Creteil, 94000, France
5 Universite Paris-7 Paris-Diderot, UFR de Medecine, 75010, Paris, France
6 Inserm, U955, Creteil, 94000, France
7 Fondation Fondamental, Creteil, 94000, France
Academic Editor:Bruno Etain
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2014, 6(1), 120–137; https://doi.org/10.2741/S419
Published: 1 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Markers in bipolar disorders)
Abstract

Chronobiological models have contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorders. Circadian functions dysregulations are associated with bipolar disorders, including biochemical (melatonin and cortisol profiles), actigraphic (sleep/wake patterns), and dimensional (chronotypes) circadian markers. These associations are observed not only during acute episodes but also during euthymic periods. Most markers that are associated with bipolar disorders are also found in the healthy relatives of patients, suggesting a strong degree of heritability. As such, they may serve as trait markers of the disorder. Several circadian genes have been found to be associated with bipolar disorders: at least three studies have reported positive associations for each of CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL1, NR1D1, PER3, RORB and CSNK1epsilon. Thus the clock machinery may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to bipolar disorders. The circadian model theory has also led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies such as InterPersonal and Social Rhythms Therapy and chronotherapeutics. Additionally, the circadian model theory may help explain how mood stabilizers (in particular lithium carbonate) bring about their therapeutic effects.

Keywords
Bipolar disorders
Circadian rhythms
Chronotype
Clock genes
Trait marker
Melatonin
Review
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