IMR Press / FBS / Volume 6 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S418

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review
Predictive response biomarkers in rectal cancer neoadjuvant treatment
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1 Surgical Clinic, Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padova, Via Nicolo Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
2 Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6670 Bertner Avenue, Houston, 77030 TX, USA
3 Istituto di Ricerca Pediatrica- Città della Speranza, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova, Italy
4 Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico, IRCCS National Cancer Institute, Via Franco Gallini 2, 33081 Aviano (PN), Italy
Academic Editor:Matteo Fassan
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2014, 6(1), 110–119; https://doi.org/10.2741/S418
Published: 1 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The post-genomic revolution in diagnostic pathology)
Abstract

Locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) treatment is a challenge, because RC has a high rate of local recurrence. To date preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pCRT) is widely accepted as standard protocol of care for middle-low RC, but complete tumour response rate ranges from 4 to 44% and 5-year local recurrence rate is 6%. Better understanding of molecular biology and carcinogenesis pathways could be used both for pre-neoplastic lesions and locally recurrence diagnosis, and for tumour response prediction to therapy. Circulating molecules, gene expression and protein signature are promising sources to biomarker discovery. Several studies have evaluated potential predictors of response and recently, cell-free Nucleic Acid levels have been associated to tumour response to neoadjuvant therapies. Alternative method is the serum or plasma proteome and peptidome analysis. It may be ideally suited for its minimal invasiveness and it can be repeated at multiple time points throughout the treatment in contrast to tissue-based methods which still remain the most reliable and specific approach. Many studies have analyzed preoperative rectal tissue prognostic factor, but data are controversial or not confirmed.

Keywords
Review
Rectal Cancer
Tumour response prediction
Circulating biomarkers
Tissutal biomarkers
Gene expression
Peptides
Review
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