IMR Press / FBL / Volume 27 / Issue 9 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbl2709255
Open Access Original Research
FDXR Gene Expression after in Vivo Radiation Exposure of Pediatric Patients Undergoing Interventional Cardiology Procedures
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1 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
2 Physics Department, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou, Athens, Greece
3 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Laboratory of Biology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
4 Paediatric Cardiology and Adult with Congenital Heart Disease Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 17674 Athens, Greece
5 Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University, 11527 Athens, Greece
6 Department of Sciences, Hellenic Open University, 26335 Patra, Greece
7 DNA Damage Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Zografou Campus, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 15780 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: (Alexandros G. Georgakilas)
Academic Editor: Taeg Kyu Kwon
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2022, 27(9), 255;
Submitted: 12 June 2022 | Revised: 19 July 2022 | Accepted: 20 July 2022 | Published: 31 August 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Ferredoxin reductase (FDXR) has already been reported as a promising biomarker for estimating radiation doses in radiotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the responsiveness of FDXR on pediatric population exposed to ionizing radiation (X-rays) during pediatric interventional cardiology (IC) procedures. Patients and Methods: Peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture from 24 pediatric donors before and 24 hours after the IC procedure. To estimate the effective dose, demographic data and Air Kerma-Area Product (PKA) were recorded for each patient. The relative quantification (RQ) of the FDXR gene in irradiated patient blood samples compared to the non-irradiated blood samples was determined using qPCR analysis. The relative values of FDXR were log- transformed. Results: The effective dose ranged from 0.002 mSv to 8.004 mSv. Over this radiation exposure range, the FDXR gene expression varied randomly with the effective dose. Up-regulation in FDXR expression was observed in 17 patients and down-regulation in 7 patients. Conclusions: Further studies in a larger cohort of pediatric patients along with the record of clinical data are needed to determine whether FDXR gene expression is an effective biomarker for radiation exposure estimation in pediatric imaging.

FDXR gene
ionizing radiation
pediatric interventional cardiology
Fig. 1.
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