IMR Press / FBL / Volume 26 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.52586/4931
Open Access Review
A detailed review of the outbreak of COVID-19
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1 Department of Philosophy, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, 751004 Odisha, India
2 Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, 211012 Allahabad, India
3 Reodx Regulation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, College of Basic Science and Humanities, Bhubaneswar, 751003 Odisha, India
*Correspondence: (Sintu Kumar Samanta)
These authors contributed equally.
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2021, 26(6), 149–170;
Submitted: 28 June 2020 | Accepted: 3 March 2021 | Published: 30 May 2021
Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by BRI.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license (

The disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the third highly infectious human Coronavirus epidemic in the 21st century due to its high transmission rate and quick evolution of its pathogenicity. Genomic studies indicate that it is zoonotic from bats. The COVID-19 has led to significant loss of lives and a tremendous economic decline in the world. Generally, the population at risk of a fatal outcome are the elderly and those who are debilitated or are immune compromised. The fatality rate is high, but now is reduced after the development of preventive vaccine although an effective treatment by drug against the virus is yet to be developed. The treatment is narrowed to the use of several anti-viral drugs, or other re-purposed drugs. Social distancing, therefore, has emerged as a putative method to decrease the rate of infection. In this review, we summarize the aspects of the disease that is so far have come to light and review the impact of the infection on our society, healthcare, economy, education, and environment.

Vaccine development
Socio-economic impacts
Phronetic needs for COVID-19
Fig. 1.
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