Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a syndrome occurring in some patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or, less frequently, Graves’ disease. Three known autoantigens are involved in HE: alpha-enolase, dimethylargininase-I (DDAHI) and aldehyde reductase-I (AKRIAI). We searched for amino acid sequence homologies between these proteins and the three classical thyroid autoantigens (thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), TSH-receptor (TSH-R)), which are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). TSH-R shows homologies with alpha-enolase (n=4), DDAHI (n=2) and AKRIAI (n=5); of these segments, two, two and four, respectively, overlap totally or partially with epitope-containing TSH-R segments. Tg has 10 homologies with alpha-enolase, five with DDAHI, and eight with AKRIAI; epitope-containing segments of Tg overlap four, three and four segments, respectively. TPO has six segments homologous to alpha-enolase, three to DDAHI and seven to AKRIAI; of these segments, five, one and four, respectively, are located in epitope-containing parts. These data suggest that cross-reactivity between CNS autoantigens and thyroid autoantigens might contribute to the HE pathogenesis, together with other proposed mechanisms, including autoimmunity involving autoantigens common to CNS and thyroid.