Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Primordial germ cell migration and homing within the gonadal ridge during early embryo development requires oocyte-secreted polypeptide, growth factors, growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), bone morphogenetic proteins, stem cell factor (SCF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). During embryogenesis, the germ cells migrate into developing gonads and undergo intra-ovarian development which involves the contact of primordial germ cells with other cells. Further follicular development and differentiation is tightly regulated by hormones and by intraovarian regulators. Maturation of cumulus-oocyte complexes and ovulation are directly controlled by FSH and LH and requires activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in granulosa cells. The selection of dominant follicles is driven by a series of proliferation and apoptotic events. Together, the available data suggests that follicular development is regulated both by systemic and local factors.