IMR Press / FBL / Volume 23 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/4584

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Electrophysiological evidence for long-axis intrinsic diversification of the hippocampus

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1 Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Medicine, University of Patras,26 504 Rion, Patras, Greece
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2018, 23(1), 109–145; https://doi.org/10.2741/4584
Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrophysiology from bench to bedside)
Abstract

The elongated structure of the hippocampus is critically involved in brain functions of profound importance. The segregation of functions along the longitudinal (septotemporal or dorsoventral) axis of the hippocampus is a slowly developed concept and currently is a widely accepted idea. The segregation of neuroanatomical connections along the hippocampal long axis can provide a basis for the interpretation of the functional segregation. However, an emerging and growing body of data strongly suggests the existence of endogenous diversification in the properties of the local neural network along the long axis of the hippocampus. In particular, recent electrophysiological research provides compelling evidence demonstrating constitutively increased network excitability in the ventral hippocampus with important implications for the endogenous initiation and propagation of physiological hippocampal oscillations yet, under favorable conditions it can also drive the local network towards hyperexcitability. In addition, important specializations in the properties of dorsal and ventral hippocampal synapses may support an optimal signal processing that contributes to the effective execution of the distinct functional roles played by the two hippocampal segments.

Keywords
Dorsoventral
Electrophysiology
Excitability
Epileptiform discharge
Facilitation
GABA
Hippocampus
In vitro
Long axis
LTP
Neuronal network
NMDA
Oscillation
Plasticity
Septotemporal
Sharp waves
Synaptic transmission
Theta rhythm
Review
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