IMR Press / FBL / Volume 16 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.2741/3841

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Canonical and variant histones of protozoan parasites
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1 Laboratorio de Parasitologia Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas-Instituto Tecnologico Chascomus (IIB-INTECH), UNSAM-CONICET, Chascomus 7130, Argentina
2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202,USA

Academic Editor: Sergio Angel

Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2011, 16(6), 2086–2105; https://doi.org/10.2741/3841
Published: 1 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel contributions from protozoa to molecular and cellular biology)
Abstract

Protozoan parasites have tremendously diverse lifestyles that require adaptation to a remarkable assortment of different environmental conditions. In order to complete their life cycles, protozoan parasites rely on fine-tuning gene expression. In general, protozoa use novel regulatory elements, transcription factors, and epigenetic mechanisms to regulate their transcriptomes. One of the most surprising findings includes the nature of their histones—these primitive eukaryotes lack some histones yet harbor novel histone variants of unknown function. In this review, we describe the histone components of different protozoan parasites based on literature and database searching. We summarize the key discoveries regarding histones and histone variants and their impact on chromatin regulation in protozoan parasites. In addition, we list histone genes IDs, sequences, and genomic localization of several protozoan parasites and Microsporidia histones, obtained from a thorough search of genome databases. We then compare these findings with those observed in higher eukaryotes, allowing us to highlight some novel aspects of epigenetic regulation in protists and to propose questions to be addressed in the upcoming years.

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