IMR Press / FBL / Volume 14 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/3296

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Failure of beta-cell adaptation in type 2 diabetes: Lessons from animal models
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1 Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Department of Medicine, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
Academic Editors:Catherine Kargar, Frederic De Ceuninck, Frederic De Ceuninck
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2009, 14(3), 1099–1115; https://doi.org/10.2741/3296
Published: 1 January 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New therapeutic approaches for type 2 diabetes)
Abstract

The pancreatic beta-cell adapts to increased nutrient availability and insulin resistance by increasing its function and mass. These processes are orchestrated by signals derived from nutrient metabolism, hormones and cytokines. Their end-result is the regulation of insulin secretion and biosynthesis, and beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in beta-cell nutrient sensing and adaptation and the potential causes of beta-cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate adequate beta-cell adaptation and the natural history of beta-cell failure is of utmost importance for the development of novel disease modifying treatments.

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