IMR Press / FBL / Volume 13 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.2741/2909

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
The diverse biological roles of mammalian PARPS, a small but powerful family of poly-ADP-ribose polymerases
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1 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Gene Expression Unit, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Academic Editor:Michael Hottiger
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2008, 13(8), 3046–3082;
Published: 1 January 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ADP-riboseNAD metabolism)

Poly-ADP-ribose metabolism plays a mayor role in a wide range of biological processes, such as maintenance of genomic stability, transcriptional regulation, energy metabolism and cell death. Poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) are an ancient family of enzymes, as evidenced by the poly-ADP-ribosylating activities reported in dinoflagellates and archaebacteria and by the identification of Parp-like genes in eubacterial and archaeabacterial genomes. Six genes encoding "bona fide" PARP enzymes have been identified in mammalians: PARP1, PARP2, PARP3, PARP4/vPARP, PARP5/Tankyrases-1 and PARP6/Tankyrases-2. The best studied of these enzymes PARP1 plays a primary role in the process of poly-ADP-ribosylation. PARP1-mediated poly-ADP-ribosylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will summarize the novel findings and concepts for PARP enzymes and their poly-ADP-ribosylation activity in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes. A special focus is placed on the proposed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, such as signaling, regulation of telomere dynamics, remodeling of chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. A potential functional cross talk between PARP family members and other NAD+-consuming enzymes is discussed.

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