Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
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Academic Editor: Mark Slevin
Carotid atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cerebrovascular events. The control of cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. tabacco smoking, alcohol abuse, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and obesity proved to reduce number of fatal and non-fatal strokes but failed to prevent important number of them. Screening of individuals at high risk of symptomatic vascular disease for biomarkers helped to identify some of them. However, as disease is by its nature multifocal, global testing for biomarkers may have limited practical application. New imaging techniques, including direct visualization of artery metabolism, by PET, has brought new tools for study of local progression and metabolic activity of individual atherosclerotic lesions. Advances in molecular biology helped to identify inflammatory genes and its strong link to angiogenesis. The later, is thought to play a key role in the transformation to unstable plaque. Studies of the complex role that plays angiogenesis in plaque development will help in future to design effective therapies addressed at the individual cell level. The purpose of the review is to bring new insights into complicated pathophysiology of carotid atherosclerosis.