Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
An adjuvant role of in situ dendritic cells (DCs) in linking innate and adaptive immunity
Dendritic cells (DCs) work as natural adjuvants to elicit T cell immunity. Though DCs have been widely used in immunotherapy, little is known about their number and function in patients with cancer or autoimmune disease. In recent studies, antigen has been targeted to DCs through DC-specific receptors, such as DEC205, the mannose receptor and dying cell receptors. However, antigen captured by DCs in the absence of danger signals induces tolerance. Therefore, the duration and/or magnitude of danger signals plays a crucial role in generating an immunogeneic response. Various danger signals, i.e., pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and the activation of innate lymphocytes, serve as maturation signals for DCs. An immunotherapeutic approach which delivers both maturation signals and antigen to DCs would link the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system for a more effective and global immune response. It is therefore crucial to determine optimal conditions for antigen delivery to DCs in an environment suited to maximally stimulate the immune system.