IMR Press / FBL / Volume 11 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.2741/2024

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Article
Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in bone: an overview of regulation and functions
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1 Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, and the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, Connecticut, USA
Academic Editor:Hiroki Yokota
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2006, 11(3), 2949–2966;
Published: 1 September 2006
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix metalloproteinases)

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of Zn2+-dependent endopeptidases, mediate different physiological processes by digesting components of the extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, overexpression of MMPs is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Different MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are expressed in bone cells, and their biosynthesis is regulated by local and systemic hormones and factors. The levels of enzymatically active MMPs in bone are further controlled by secretion, activation of proenzymes, inhibition by TIMPs, cellular uptake and degradation. Members of the cysteine and serine family of proteinases also coordinate some of the biological activities of MMPs in bone. The functions of MMPs and TIMPs in bone include regulation of processes, such as degradation of collagen and other components of the bone matrix, migration and survival of bone cells, endochondral bone formation and bone resorption. Abnormal expression of MMPs may lead to pathological conditions affecting bone and cartilage. Various pharmacological agents can inhibit MMPs, and some of these inhibitors may be potential therapeutic agents for certain bone diseases. This review briefly describes the regulation and functions of different MMPs and TIMPs in bone, and provides an insight into the role of MMPs in bone development, remodeling and pathology.

Matrix metalloproteinases
Plasminogen Activators
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