IMR Press / FBE / Volume 14 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.fbe1403019
Open Access Editorial
Oral Microbiota Changes during Orthodontic Treatment
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1 Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
*Correspondence: (Alessandro Polizzi)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Viorel-Puiu Paun
Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed) 2022, 14(3), 19;
Submitted: 28 February 2022 | Revised: 9 March 2022 | Accepted: 9 March 2022 | Published: 27 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relationship between oral health and systemic health: an update)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Orthodontic treatment has become increasingly popular due to its benefits in improving facial and smile aesthetics, self-esteem and the function of the stomatognathic apparatus. However, orthodontic appliances make it more difficult to brush teeth effectively, as they interfere with tooth brushing and facilitate the accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm), which induces a quantitative and qualitative change in the oral microbiota. It can cause several adverse effects, such as gingivitis, periodontitis, white spot lesions (WSL), caries and halitosis, induced by an increase in periodontopathogenic and cariogenic bacteria. Therefore, this article resumes the main findings on the changes in the oral microbiota induced by different orthodontic appliances (removable, fixed and clear aligners) and gives some practical strategies in order to reduce the impact and/or incidence of local dental/periodontal complications.

orthodontic treatment
oral microbiome
white spot lesions
orthodontic removable appliances
orthodontic fixed appliances
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