Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.
Wildlife population management: are contraceptive vaccines a feasible proposition?
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Academic Editors: Pradyumna Kumar Mishra, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Siamak Tabibzadeh
To minimize human-animal conflicts for habitation and burden of zoonotic diseases, it is imperative to develop new strategies for wildlife population management. In this direction, contraceptive vaccines eliciting immune response against hormones/proteins critical for reproduction have emerged as one of the promising options. Contraceptive vaccines based on neutralization of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used for inhibition of fertility in various species such as wild horses, white-tailed deer, pigs, cats, dogs etc. It has been used for immunocastration of male pigs to improve meat quality. However, additional safety studies of GnRH vaccine will be needed in light of presence of its receptor at extra-pituitary sites. Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP)-based contraceptive vaccines have shown their utility in the management of the population of both captive and free-ranging wild horses and white-tailed deer. Long-term use of the PZP-based contraceptive vaccines has also demonstrated their safety. Ideally single injection of the contraceptive vaccine should elicit long lasting immune response and desired contraceptive efficacy, which will require development of novel vaccine delivery platforms and more potent adjuvants.