IMR Press / FBS / Volume 11 / Issue 1 / DOI: 10.2741/S524

Frontiers in Bioscience-Scholar (FBS) is published by IMR Press from Volume 13 Issue 1 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Role of NO and other vascular mediators in the etiopathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis
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1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
2 Department of Pediatrics, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California
Send correspondence to: Jayasree Nair, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, 239 Bryant Street, Buffalo, NY 14222, Tel: 7168787673, Fax: 7168787475, E-mail:
Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2019, 11(1), 9–28;
Published: 1 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and etio-pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis)

The etio-pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is complex and multifactorial. Decades of research have not identified a definite etiology. Prematurity, enteral feeding, intestinal hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation and an abnormal microbiome are potential risk factors for developing this multisystem illness. Lack of specific diagnostic and prognostic markers adds to the challenges faced in managing NEC. Vascular mediators such as Nitric oxide (NO), catecholamines and endothelin (ET) regulate neonatal intestinal vascular resistance and may influence the pathophysiology of NEC. Neonatal morbidities, medications, transfusions, an altered microbiome and breast milk feeds may influence the vasculature in various ways. Better understanding of these mediators and their role in regulation of intestinal microcirculation and pathogenesis of NEC will assist in identifying strategies in prevention and management of this devastating illness.

Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Nitric Oxide
Mesenteric Circulation
Figure 1
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