IMR Press / FBL / Volume 23 / Issue 9 / DOI: 10.2741/4665

Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark (FBL) is published by IMR Press from Volume 26 Issue 5 (2021). Previous articles were published by another publisher on a subscription basis, and they are hosted by IMR Press on imrpress.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Frontiers in Bioscience.

Open Access Review

Manganese metabolism in humans

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1 Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2 Department of Food Chemistry, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Nuthetal, D-14558, Germany
Front. Biosci. (Landmark Ed) 2018, 23(9), 1655–1679; https://doi.org/10.2741/4665
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane transport)
Abstract

Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient for intracellular activities; it functions as a cofactor for a variety of enzymes, including arginase, glutamine synthetase (GS), pyruvate carboxylase and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). Through these metalloproteins, Mn plays critically important roles in development, digestion, reproduction, antioxidant defense, energy production, immune response and regulation of neuronal activities. Mn deficiency is rare. In contrast Mn poisoning may be encountered upon overexposure to this metal. Excessive Mn tends to accumulate in the liver, pancreas, bone, kidney and brain, with the latter being the major target of Mn intoxication. Hepatic cirrhosis, polycythemia, hypermanganesemia, dystonia and Parkinsonism-like symptoms have been reported in patients with Mn poisoning. In recent years, Mn has come to the forefront of environmental concerns due to its neurotoxicity. Molecular mechanisms of Mn toxicity include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy dysregulation, apoptosis, and disruption of other metal homeostasis. The mechanisms of Mn homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we will address recent progress in Mn absorption, distribution and elimination across different tissues, as well as the intracellular regulation of Mn homeostasis in cells. We will conclude with recommendations for future research areas on Mn metabolism.

Keywords
Manganese
Metal Metabolism
Homeostasis
Blood-Brain Barrier
Neurotoxicity
Transporters
Review
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