IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2308287
Open Access Original Research
Association of Arterial Stiffness Indices with Framingham Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score
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1 Department of Ultrasound, Jiading District Central Hospital Affiliated Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences, 201800 Shanghai, China
2 Department of Ultrasound, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, 030001 Taiyuan, Shanxi, China
3 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai General Hospital Jiading Branch, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 201812 Shanghai, China
4 Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 200080 Shanghai, China
5 Department of Ultrasound, Guanghua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 200052 Shanghai, China
*Correspondence: (LiPing Liu); (ZhaoJun Li)
Academic Editor: Carlo Briguori
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(8), 287;
Submitted: 12 May 2022 | Revised: 9 June 2022 | Accepted: 17 June 2022 | Published: 16 August 2022
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Purpose: The new non-invasive arterial stiffness indices, arterial velocity pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure volume index (API) are known to be associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The present study aimed to examine the “dose-response” associations between AVI, API and Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score (FCVRS). Methods: This survey included individuals with arterial stiffness indices collected at age 18 years and older. We used Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariate linear analyses to evaluate associations of AVI and API to other variables. The associations between FCVRS and AVI, API were analyzed by restrictive cubic spline. Results: 4311 people were included in the full study population, including 2091 males and 2220 females. In restricted cubic spline regression models, AVI or API had significant U-shaped associations with FCVRS, with the lowest risk score of cardiovascular disease was 8 units or 18 units, respectively. After AVI increased to 12 units, FCVRS increased rapidly until AVI was 27 units, and the FCVRS increased relatively flat afterward. For API, results were similar. When API increased to 23 units, the FCVRS increased rapidly, and after API was 52 units, FCVRS increased relatively flat. Conclusions: AVI or API had U-shaped associations with FCVRS. The associations may provide a new perspective for early treatment or lifestyle modifications to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

arterial stiffness
arterial velocity pulse index
arterial pressure volume index
Framingham score
21ZR1451400/Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai
2021-KY-10/Shanghai Jiading District Health and Family Planning Commission Fund
Fig. 1.
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