IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 8 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2308286
Open Access Review
Bleeding Complications in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Show Less
1 Department of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Sciences, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
2 Department of Cardiology, Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care & Research, 48033 Cotignola, Italy
3 Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS , 00168 Rome, Italy
*Correspondence: (Domenico D’Amario)
Academic Editor: Julio Núñez Villota
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(8), 286;
Submitted: 31 May 2022 | Revised: 5 July 2022 | Accepted: 19 July 2022 | Published: 15 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiplatelet Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is considered a relatively safe procedure associated with low rates of complications, but is inevitably associated with short and mid-to-long term increased bleeding risk. Besides the short term risk associated with the arterial access to perform PCI, enhanced bleeding risk persists for several months, given the need for antithrombotic therapy to prevent procedure-related thrombotic complications as well as ischemic recurrences. Bleeding is a powerful harbinger of adverse outcomes. This awareness has fuelled intense research on bleeding reduction strategies, including new PCI devices and techniques as well as new medications and antithrombotic regimens. We here review the mechanisms and prevalence of bleeding in PCI patients, discuss the available evidence from a practical point of view, and explore future perspectives on how to treat and prevent bleeding complications in these patients.

percutaneous coronary interventions
antithrombotic therapy
Graphical abstract.
Back to top