Academic Editor: Attila Nemes
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has impacted every aspect of clinical medicine, and is predicted to revolutionise diagnosis, treatment and patient care. Through novel machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques, AI has made significant grounds in cardiology and cardiac investigations, including echocardiography. Echocardiography is a ubiquitous tool that remains first-line for the evaluation of many cardiovascular diseases, with large data sets, objective parameters, widespread availability and an excellent safety profile, it represents the perfect candidate for AI advancement. As such, AI has firmly made its stamp on echocardiography, showing great promise in training, image acquisition, interpretation and analysis, diagnostics, prognostication and phenotype development. However, there remain significant barriers in real-world clinical application and uptake of AI derived algorithms in echocardiography, most importantly being the lack of clinical outcome studies. While AI has been shown to match or even best its human counterparts, an improvement in real world outcomes remains to be established. There are also legal and ethical concerns that hinder its progress. Large outcome focused trials and a collaborative multi-disciplinary effort will be necessary to push AI into the clinical workspace. Despite this, current and emerging trials suggest that these systems will undoubtedly transform echocardiography, improving clinical utility, efficiency and training.