IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 6 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2306202
Open Access Review
Microbubble Enhanced Echocardiography in Current Cardiology Practice
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1 Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Erasmus MC, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
*Correspondence: (Mihai Strachinaru)
Academic Editor: Tasneem Z. Naqvi
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(6), 202;
Submitted: 9 February 2022 | Revised: 27 April 2022 | Accepted: 29 April 2022 | Published: 31 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Echocardiography in Current Cardiology Practice)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is a radiation-free clinical diagnostic tool that uses biocompatible contrast agents to enhance ultrasound signal, in order to improve image clarity and diagnostic performance. Ultrasound enhancing agents (UEA), which are usually gas microbubbles, are administered intravenously either by bolus injection or continuous infusion. UEA increase the accuracy and reliability of echocardiography, leading to changes in treatment, improving patient outcomes and lowering overall health care costs. In this review we describe: (1) the current clinical applications of ultrasound enhancing agents in echocardiography, with a brief review of the evidence underlying each of these applications; (2) emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications of microbubble enhanced echocardiography (MEE), which rely either on the specific properties and composition of ultrasound enhancing agents or on the technical advances of clinical ultrasound systems; and (3) safety of MEE.

microbubble enhanced echocardiography
ultrasound enhancing agents
contrast-enhanced ultrasound
contrast echocardiography
Fig. 1.
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