IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 4 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2304130
Open Access Original Research
Trans fatty acid intake increases likelihood of dyslipidemia especially among individuals with higher saturated fat consumption
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1 Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 11855 Athens, Greece
2 Hellenic Food Authority, 11526 Athens, Greece
3 Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
4 Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, University of Thessaly, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
5 Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA
6 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education Harokopio University, 17676 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: (Emmanuella Magriplis)
Academic Editor: Grant Pierce
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(4), 130;
Submitted: 24 November 2021 | Revised: 9 January 2022 | Accepted: 24 January 2022 | Published: 7 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: Evidence points to adverse effects of trans fatty acids (TFA) on health. The aim of this study was to estimate total TFA intake, evaluate major food contributors and its effect on dyslipidemia. Methods: A total of 3537 adults (48.3% males) were included. Total TFA intake was assessed using two 24-hour dietary recalls. Foods were categorized into specific food groups. Adjusted Logistic Regression analysis was performed to assess the likelihood of dyslipidemia by tertile of TFA aand Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) level. Results: Median TFA intake was 0.53% of energy (from 0.34 to 0.81) ranging from 0.27 (Q1) to 0.95 (Q3) (p < 0.001, for trend), and 16% of individuals consumed TFA above 1% of their total energy. Cheese was the main contributor to TFA intake, with processed/refined grains and fried fish following. The latter was the main contributor in older adults (51+ years). Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that individuals at the highest tertile of trans consumption were 30% more likely to have dyslipidemia compared to the lowest (OR(Q3-Q1): 1.3; 95% CI: 1.02–1.66 and OR(Q2-Q1): 1.3; 95% CI:1.01–1.66, respectively). This increased by 10% when stratified by SFA intake (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.061–1.942) and remained significant only in individuals at the highest tertile and with higher than recommended SFA intake. Conclusions: A high intake of TFA combined with high SFA intakes further increase the likelihood of dyslipidemia and should be accounted for in public health prevention programs. Monitoring and evaluation of the recent EU legislative measures on TFA levels in foods is also necessary.

trans fatty acid intake
dietary intake
saturated fat intake
cardiovascular disease
food contribution
Fig. 1.
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