Academic Editors: Giuseppe Nasso and Giuseppe Santarpino
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) shows a high prevalence and is characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. It is also associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The CKD population often suffers from atrial fibrillation (AF), which is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. There is a pernicious bidirectional relationship between CKD and AF: renal dysfunction can help promote AF initiation and maintenance, while unmanageable AF often accelerates kidney function deterioration. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the interactive mechanisms between CKD and AF for optimal management of patients. However, due to renal function impairment and changes in the pharmacokinetics of anticoagulants, it is still elusive to formulate a normative therapeutic schedule for the AF population concomitant with CKD especially those with end-stage kidney failure. This review describes the possible molecular mechanisms linking CKD to AF and existing therapeutic options.