IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2303099
Open Access Original Research
Natural History and Influence on Long-term Outcomes of Isolated Type II Endoleak after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: A 10-year Experience at a Single Center
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1 Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430022 Wuhan, Hubei, China
2 Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, 430022 Wuhan, Hubei, China
*Correspondence: (Bin Xiong)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Carmela Rita Balistreri, Takatoshi Kasai and Brian Tomlinson
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(3), 99;
Submitted: 14 January 2022 | Revised: 16 February 2022 | Accepted: 3 March 2022 | Published: 12 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Cardiovascular Medicine in Asia 2021)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Background: The management of type II endoleaks (T2ELs) remains controversial in current literature. Hence, this study aimed to explore the natural history of isolated type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and its influence on long-term outcomes based on a 10-year follow-up at a tertiary medical center. Methods: From January 2011 to April 2021, consecutive patients who underwent elective EVAR were reviewed. The demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment details, imaging information, in the event of T2ELs, and outcomes were extracted. Results: A total of 287 patients were included for analysis. Isolated T2EL was identified in 79 patients (27.5%), while no endoleak was found in 208 patients (72.5%). The mean age at EVAR was 68.1 ± 8.9 years (range, 41–92 years) and the majority of patients were male (81.5%). The mean follow-up duration was 42.7 months (range, 2–119.7 months). Among the 79 patients with isolated T2ELs, 33 (41.8%, 33/79) were early and 46 (58.2%, 46/79) were late. Spontaneous resolution of T2ELs was identified in 29 patients (36.7%, 29/79). Persistent T2ELs were observed in 50 patients (63.3%, 50/79). No sac growth was seen in 33 patients (66%, 33/50) and these patients were managed conservatively. The remaining 17 patients (34%, 17/50) showed significant sac growth. Six of them declined intervention due to various reasons and the remaining 11 patients underwent interventional embolization for T2ELs. Following the embolization, 2 patients had complete resolution of T2ELs and 9 patients had persistent T2ELs. Among the patients with persistent T2ELs, 2 patients (2/9) still showed progressive sac growth, and one of them died from aneurysm rupture; the remaining 7 patients (7/9) showed no sac growth. Patients with isolated T2ELs had a higher incidence of sac growth than patients without any endoleak (21.5% vs 4.3%, p < 0.001), while no difference was found in overall survival between the two groups. In Cox regression analysis, only higher age was independently associated with worse survival. Conclusions: Type II Endoleak was significantly associated with aneurysm sac growth and no association with survival was observed.

endovascular procedure
Fig. 1.
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