IMR Press / RCM / Volume 23 / Issue 3 / DOI: 10.31083/j.rcm2303083
Open Access Review
Energy drink consumption: a rising public health issue
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1 Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Integrative Sciences, School of Medicine, BB11100 Saint Michael, Barbados
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, 74200 Karachi, Pakistan
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine, Middletown, NY 10027, USA
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Indiana, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
5 Department of Internal Medicine, Penn State Milton S Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
*Correspondence: (Amandeep Kaur)
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Demosthenes B Panagiotakos and Matina Kouvari
Rev. Cardiovasc. Med. 2022, 23(3), 83;
Submitted: 14 September 2021 | Revised: 28 November 2021 | Accepted: 29 November 2021 | Published: 4 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, nutrients and cardiovascular disease prevention)
Copyright: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

Energy drink (ED) consumption has become a growing public health issue over the past few decades. Despite claims of being safe and beneficial, EDs have been linked to particularly fatal outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system which include atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions, cardiomyopathies, and sudden cardiac death. Large quantities of caffeine, taurine, sugars, and B-vitamins may be contributing to these outcomes by increasing the heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and contractility of the heart in addition to prolonging the QTc. There is still a substantial amount of unknown information on EDs that warrants more research and a dire need for age regulations, transparency of ingredients, clear labeling of adverse effects, and most importantly, education of consumers.

energy drinks
red bull
monster energy
Fig. 1.
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