†These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Demosthenes B Panagiotakos and Matina Kouvari
Energy drink (ED) consumption has become a growing public health issue over the past few decades. Despite claims of being safe and beneficial, EDs have been linked to particularly fatal outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system which include atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions, cardiomyopathies, and sudden cardiac death. Large quantities of caffeine, taurine, sugars, and B-vitamins may be contributing to these outcomes by increasing the heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and contractility of the heart in addition to prolonging the QTc. There is still a substantial amount of unknown information on EDs that warrants more research and a dire need for age regulations, transparency of ingredients, clear labeling of adverse effects, and most importantly, education of consumers.